The White Tower of Thessaloniki
|Nickname(s): The co-capital,
The Bride of the Thermaic Gulf
|Administrative region||Central Macedonia|
|Founded||315BC (2329 years ago)|
|Incorporated||Oct. 1912 (102 years ago)|
|• Urban||111.703 km2 (43.129 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,455.62 km2 (562.02 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||250 m (820 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|• Rank||2nd urban, 2nd metro|
|• Urban density||7,080/km2 (18,300/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||692/km2 (1,790/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Postal codes||53xxx, 54xxx, 55xxx, 56xxx|
|Vehicle registration||NAx-xxxx to NXx-xxxx|
|Patron saint||Saint Demetrius (26 October)|
|Gross metropolitan product (2009)
• Per capita
Thessaloniki (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη [θesaloˈnici] ( )), also known as Thessalonica or Salonica, is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.34 Its honorific title is Συμπρωτεύουσα (Symprotévousa), literally "co-capital",5 and stands as a reference to its historical status as the Συμβασιλεύουσα (Symvasilévousa) or "co-reigning" city of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, alongside Constantinople.6
According to the preliminary results of the 2011 census, the municipality of Thessaloniki today has a population of 322,240,1 while the Thessaloniki Urban Area (the contiguous built up area forming the "City of Thessaloniki") has a population of 790,824.1 Furthermore, the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area extends over an area of 1,455.62 km2 (562.02 sq mi) and its population in 2011 reached a total of 1,104,460 inhabitants.1
Thessaloniki is Greece's second major economic, industrial, commercial and political centre, and a major transportation hub for the rest of southeastern Europe;7 its commercial port is also of great importance for Greece and the southeastern European hinterland.7 The city is renowned for its festivals, events and vibrant cultural life in general,8 and is considered to be Greece's cultural capital.8 Events such as the Thessaloniki International Trade Fair and the Thessaloniki International Film Festival are held annually, while the city also hosts the largest bi-annual meeting of the Greek diaspora.9 Thessaloniki is the 2014 European Youth Capital.10
Founded in 315 BC by Cassander of Macedon, Thessaloniki's history spans some 2,300 years. An important metropolis by the Roman period, Thessaloniki was the second largest and wealthiest city of the Byzantine Empire. Thessaloniki is home to numerous notable Byzantine monuments, including the Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as well as several Roman, Ottoman and Sephardic Jewish structures. The city's main university, Aristotle University, is the largest in Greece and the Balkans.11
Thessaloniki is a popular tourist destination in Greece. In 2010, Lonely Planet ranked Thessaloniki as the world's fifth-best party city worldwide, comparable to other cities such as Dubai and Montreal.12 For 2013 National Geographic Magazine included Thessaloniki in its top tourist destinations worldwide,13 while in 2014 Financial Times FDI magazine (Foreign Direct Investments) declared Thessaloniki as the best mid-sized European city of the future for human capital and lifestyle.1415
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government
- 5 Cityscape
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 Education
- 10 Transport
- 11 International relations
- 12 Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
All variations of the city's name derive from the original (and current) appellation in Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη (from Θεσσαλός, Thessalos, and Νίκη, Nike), literally translating to "Thessalian Victory". The name of the city came from the name of a princess, Thessalonike of Macedon, half sister of Alexander the Great, so named because of her birth on the day of the Macedonian victory at the Battle of Crocus Field (353/352 BCE).16
The alternative name Salonica (or Salonika) derives from the variant form Σαλονίκη (Saloníki) in popular Greek speech, and has given rise to the form of the city's name in several languages. Names in other languages prominent in the city's history include Солѹнь (Solun) in Old Church Slavonic, סלוניקה (Salonika) in Ladino, Selanik (also Selânik) in Turkish (سلانیك in Ottoman Turkish), Solun (also written as Солун) in the local and neighboring South Slavic languages, Салоники (Saloníki) in Russian, and Sãrunã in Aromanian. In local speech, the city's name is typically pronounced with a dark and deep L characteristic of Macedonian Greek accent.1718
The name often appears in writing in the abbreviated form Θεσ/νίκη.19
The city was founded around 315 BC by the King Cassander of Macedon, on or near the site of the ancient town of Therma and 26 other local villages.20 He named it after his wife Thessalonike,21 a half-sister of Alexander the Great and princess of Macedon as daughter of Philip II. Under the kingdom of Macedon the city retained its own autonomy and parliament22 and evolved to become the most important city in Macedon.21
After the fall of the kingdom of Macedon in 168 BC, Thessalonica became a free city of the Roman Republic under Mark Antony in 41 BC.2123 It grew to be an important trade-hub located on the Via Egnatia,24 the road connecting Dyrrhachium with Byzantium,25 which facilitated trade between Thessaloniki and great centers of commerce such as Rome and Byzantium.26 Thessaloniki also lay at the southern end of the main north-south route through the Balkans along the valleys of the Morava and Axios river valleys, thereby linking the Balkans with the rest of Greece.27 The city later became the capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia.24 Later it became the capital of all the Greek provinces of the Roman Empire due to the city's importance in the Balkan peninsula. When the Roman Empire was divided into the tetrarchy, Thessaloniki became the administrative capital of one of the four portions of the Empire under Galerius Maximianus Caesar,2829 where Galerius commissioned an imperial palace, a new hippodrome, a triumphal arch and a mausoleum among others.293031
In 379 when the Roman Prefecture of Illyricum was divided between the East and West Roman Empires, Thessaloniki became the capital of the new Prefecture of Illyricum.24 In 390 Gothic troops under the Roman Emperor Theodosius I, led a massacre against the inhabitants of Thessalonica, who had risen in revolt against the Germanic soldiers. With the Fall of Rome in 476, Thessaloniki became the second-largest city of the Eastern Roman Empire.26 Around the time of the Roman Empire Thessaloniki was also an important center for the spread of Christianity; some scholars hold that the First Epistle to the Thessalonians written by Paul the Apostle is the first written book of the New Testament.32
From the first years of the Byzantine Empire, Thessaloniki was considered the second city in the Empire after Constantinople,333435 both in terms of wealth and size.33 with an population of 150,000 in the mid 1100s.36 The city held this status until it was transferred to Venice in 1423. In the 14th century the city's population exceeded 100,000 to 150,000,373839 making it larger than London at the time.40
During the 6th and 7th centuries the area around Thessaloniki was invaded by Avars and Slavs, who unsuccessfully laid siege to the city several times, as narrated in the Miracles of Saint Demetrius.41 Traditional historiography stipulates that many Slavs settled in the hinterland of Thessaloniki,42 however, this migration was allegedly on a much smaller scale than previously thought.424243 In the 9th century, the Byzantine Greek missionaries Cyril and Methodius, both natives of the city, created the first literary language of the Slavs, the Glagolic alphabet, most likely based on the Slavic dialect used in the hinterland of their hometown.4445464748
An Arab naval attack in 904 resulted in the sack of the city.49 The economic expansion of the city continued through the 12th century as the rule of the Komnenoi emperors expanded Byzantine control to the north. Thessaloniki passed out of Byzantine hands in 1204,50 when Constantinople was captured by the forces of the Fourth Crusade and incorporated the city and its surrounding territories in the Kingdom of Thessalonica51 — which then became the largest vassal of the Latin Empire. In 1224, the Kingdom of Thessalonica was overrun by the Despotate of Epirus, a remnant of the former Byzantine Empire, under Theodore Komnenos Doukas who crowned himself Emperor,52 and the city became the Despotat's capital.5253 This era of the Despotate of Epirus is also known as the Empire of Thessalonica.525455 Following his defeat at Klokotnitsa however in 1230,5254 the Empire of Thessalonica became a vassal state of the Second Bulgarian Empire until it was recovered again in 1246, this time by the Nicaean Empire.52 In 1342,56 the city saw the rise of the Commune of the Zealots, an anti-aristocratic party formed of sailors and the poor,57 which is nowadays described as social-revolutionary.56 The city was practically independent of the rest of the Empire,565758 as it had its own government, a form of republic.56 The zealot movement was overthrown in 1350 and the city was reunited with the rest of the Empire.56
In 1423, Despot Andronicus, who was in charge of the city, ceded it to the Republic of Venice with the hope that it could be protected from the Ottomans who were besieging the city (there is no evidence to support the oft-repeated story that he sold the city to them). The Venetians held Thessaloniki until it was captured by the Ottoman Sultan Murad II on 29 March 1430.59
When Sultan Murad II captured Thessaloniki and sacked it in 1430, contemporary reports estimated that about one-fifth of the city's population was enslaved.60 Upon the conquest of Thessaloniki, some of its inhabitants escaped,61 including intellectuals such as Theodorus Gaza "Thessalonicensis" and Andronicus Callistus.62 However, the change of sovereignty from the Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman one did not affect the city's prestige as a major imperial city and trading hub.6364 Thessaloniki and Smyrna, although smaller in size than Constantinople, were the Ottoman Empire's most important trading hubs.63 Thessaloniki's importance was mostly in the field of shipping,63 but also in manufacturing,64 while most of the city's trade was controlled by ethnic Greeks.63
During the Ottoman period, the city's population of mainly Greek Jews and Ottoman Muslims (including those of Turkish and Albanian, as well as Bulgarian Muslim and Greek Muslim convert origin) grew substantially. By 1478 Selânik (سلانیك), as the city came to be known in Ottoman Turkish, had a population of 4,320 Muslims, 6,094 Greek Orthodox and some Catholics, but no Jews. Soon after the turn of the 15th to 16th century, nearly 20,000 Sephardic Jews had immigrated to Greece from Spain following their expulsion by the 1492 Alhambra Decree.65 By c. 1500, the numbers had grown to 7,986 Greeks, 8,575 Muslims, and 3,770 Jews. By 1519, Sephardic Jews numbered 15,715, 54% of the city's population. Some historians consider the Ottoman regime's invitation to Jewish settlement was a strategy to prevent the ethnic Greek population (Eastern Orthodox Christians) from dominating the city.38
Thessaloniki was the capital of the Sanjak of Selanik within the wider Rumeli Eyalet (Balkans)66 until 1826, and subsequently the capital of Selanik Eyalet (after 1867, the Selanik Vilayet).6768 This consisted of the sanjaks of Selanik, Serres and Drama between 1826 and 1912.69 Thessaloniki was also a Janissary stronghold where novice Janissaries were trained. In June 1826, regular Ottoman soldiers attacked and destroyed the Janissary base in Thessaloniki while also killing over 10,000 Janissaries, an event known as The Auspicious Incident in Ottoman history.70 From 1870, driven by economic growth, the city's population expanded by 70%, reaching 135,000 in 1917.71
The last few decades of Ottoman control over the city were an era of revival, particularly in terms of the city's infrastructure. It was at that time that the Ottoman administration of the city acquired an "official" face with the creation of the Command Post72 while a number of new public buildings were built in the eclectic style in order to project the European face both of Thessaloniki and the Ottoman Empire.7273 The city walls were torn down between 1869 and 1889,74 efforts for a planned expansion of the city are evident as early as 1879,75 the first tram service started in 188876 and the city streets were illuminated with electric lamp posts in 1908.77 In 1888 Thessaloniki was connected to Central Europe via rail through Belgrade, Monastir in 1893 and Constantinople in 1896.75
In the early 20th century, Thessaloniki was in the center of radical activities by various groups; the Bulgarian Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, founded in 1897,78 and the Greek Macedonian Committee, founded in 1903.79 In 1903 an anarchist group known as the Boatmen of Thessaloniki planted bombs in several buildings in Thessaloniki, including the Ottoman Bank, with some assistance from the IMRO. The Greek consulate in Ottoman Thessaloniki (now the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle) served as the center of operations for the Greek guerillas. In 1908 the Young Turks movement broke out in the city, sparking the Young Turk Revolution.80
As the First Balkan War broke out, Greece declared war on the Ottoman Empire and expanded its borders. When Eleftherios Venizelos, Prime Minister at the time, was asked if the Greek army should move towards Thessaloniki or Monastir (now Bitola, Republic of Macedonia), Venizelos replied "Salonique à tout prix!" (Thessaloniki, at all costs!).81 As both Greece and Bulgaria wanted Thessaloniki, the Ottoman garrison of the city entered negotiations with both armies.82 On 8 November 1912 (26 October Old Style), the feast day of the city's patron saint, Saint Demetrius, the Greek Army accepted the surrender of the Ottoman garrison at Thessaloniki.83 The Bulgarian army arrived one day after the surrender of the city to Greece and Tahsin Pasha, ruler of the city, told the Bulgarian officials that "I have only one Thessaloniki, which I have surrendered".82 After the Second Balkan War, Thessaloniki and the rest of the Greek portion of Macedonia were officially annexed to Greece by the Treaty of Bucharest in 1913.84 On 18 March 1913 George I of Greece was assassinated in the city by Alexandros Schinas.85
In 1915, during World War I, a large Allied expeditionary force established a base at Thessaloniki for operations against pro-German Bulgaria.86 This culminated in the establishment of the Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonika Front.8788 In 1916, pro-Venizelist Greek army officers and civilians, with the support of the Allies, launched an uprising,89 creating a pro-Allied90 temporary government by the name of the "Provisional Government of National Defence"8991 that controlled the "New Lands" (lands that were gained by Greece in the Balkan Wars, most of Northern Greece including Greek Macedonia, the North Aegean as well as the island of Crete);8991 the official government of the King in Athens, the "State of Athens",89 controlled "Old Greece"8991 which were traditionally monarchist. The State of Thessaloniki was disestablished with the unification of the two opposing Greek governments under Venizelos, following the abdication of King Constantine in 1917.8691
Most of the old center of the city was destroyed by the Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917, which started accidentally by an unattended kitchen fire on 18 August 1917.92 The fire swept through the centre of the city, leaving 72,000 people homeless; according to the Pallis Report, most of them were Jewish (50,000). Many businesses were destroyed, as a result, 70% of the population were unemployed.92 Also a number of religious structures of the three major faiths were lost. Nearly one-quarter of the total population of approximately 271,157 became homeless.92 Following the fire the government prohibited quick rebuilding, so it could implement the new redesign of the city according to the European-style urban plan6 prepared by a group of architects, including the Briton Thomas Mawson, and headed by French architect Ernest Hébrard.92 Property values fell from 6.5 million Greek drachmas to 750,000.93
After the defeat of Greece in the Greco-Turkish War and during the break-up of the Ottoman Empire, a population exchange took place between Greece and Turkey.90 Over 160,000 ethnic Greeks deported from the former Ottoman Empire were resettled in the city,90 changing its demographics. Additionally many of the city's Muslims were deported to Turkey, ranging at about 20,000 people.94
During World War II Thessaloniki was heavily bombarded by Fascist Italy (with 232 people dead, 871 wounded and over 800 buildings damaged or destroyed in November 1940 alone),95 and, the Italians having failed in their invasion of Greece, it fell to the forces of Nazi Germany on 8 April 194196 and remained under German occupation until 30 October 1944 when it was liberated by the Greek People's Liberation Army.97 The Nazis soon forced the Jewish residents into a ghetto near the railroads and on 15 March 1943 began the deportation process of the city's 56,000 Jews to its concentration camps.9899 They deported over 43,000 of the city's Jews in concentration camps,98 where most were killed in the gas chambers. The Germans also deported 11,000 Jews to forced labor camps, where most perished.100 Only 1,200 Jews live in the city today.
The importance of Thessaloniki to Nazi Germany can be demonstrated by the fact that, initially, Hitler had planned to incorporate it directly in the Third Reich101 (that is, make it part of Germany) and not have it controlled by a puppet state such as the Hellenic State or an ally of Germany (Thessaloniki had been promised to Yugoslavia as a reward for joining the Axis on 25 March 1941).102 Having been the first major city in Greece to fall to the occupying forces just two days after the German invasion, it was in Thessaloniki that the first Greek resistance group was formed (under the name «Ελευθερία», Eleftheria, "Freedom")103 as well as the first anti-Nazi newspaper in an occupied territory anywhere in Europe,104 also by the name Eleftheria. Thessaloniki was also home to a military camp-converted-concentration camp, known in German as "Konzentrationslager Pavlo Mela" (Pavlos Melas Concentration Camp),105 where members of the resistance and other non-favourable people towards the German occupation from all over Greece105 were held either to be killed or sent to concentration camps elsewhere in Europe.105 In the 1946 monarchy referendum, the majority of the locals voted in favour of a republic, contrary to the rest of Greece.106
After the war, Thessaloniki was rebuilt with large-scale development of new infrastructure and industry throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Many of its architectural treasures still remain, adding value to the city as a tourist destination, while several early Christian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki were added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1988.107 In 1997, Thessaloniki was celebrated as the European Capital of Culture,108 sponsoring events across the city and the region. Agency established to oversee the cultural activities of that year 1997 was still in existence by 2010.109 In 2004 the city hosted a number of the football events as part of the 2004 Summer Olympics.110
Today Thessaloniki has become one of the most important trade and business hubs in Southeastern Europe, with its port, the Port of Thessaloniki being one of the largest in the Aegean and facilitating trade throughout the Balkan hinterland.7 On 26 October 2012 the city celebrated its centennial since its incorporation into Greece.111 The city also forms one of the largest student centres in Southeastern Europe, is host to the largest student population in Greece and will be the European Youth Capital in 2014.10112
Thessaloniki lies on the northern fringe of the Thermaic Gulf on its eastern coast and is bound by Mount Chortiatis on its southeast. Its proximity to imposing mountain ranges, hills and fault lines, especially towards its southeast have historically made the city prone to geological changes.
Since medieval times, Thessaloniki was hit by strong earthquakes, notably in 1759, 1902, 1978 and 1995.113 On 19–20 June 1978, the city suffered a series of powerful earthquakes, registering 5.5 and 6.5 on the Richter scale.114115 The tremors caused considerable damage to a number of buildings and ancient monuments,114 but the city withstood the catastrophe without any major problems.115 One apartment building in central Thessaloniki collapsed during the second earthquake, killing many, raising the final death toll to 51.114115
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Thessaloniki's climate is directly affected by the sea it is situated on.116 The city lies in a transitional climatic zone, so its climate displays characteristics of several climates. According to the Köppen climate classification, it is a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) that borders on a semi-arid climate (BSk), with annual average precipitation of 450 millimetres (18 in) due to the Pindus rain shadow drying the westerly winds. However, the city has a summer precipitation between 20 to 30 millimetres (0.79 to 1.18 in), which borders it close to a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa).
Winters are relatively dry, with common morning frost. Snowfalls are sporadic, but οccur more or less every winter, but the snow cover does not last for more than a few days. Fog is common, with an average of 193 foggy days in a year.117 During the coldest winters, temperatures can drop to −10 °C (14 °F).117 The record minimum temperature in Thessaloniki was −14 °C (7 °F).118 On average, Thessaloniki experiences frost (sub-zero temperature) 32 days a year.117 The coldest month of the year in the city is January, with an average 24-hour temperature of 6 °C (43 °F).119 Wind is also usual in the winter months, with December and January having an average wind speed of 26 km/h (16 mph).117
Thessaloniki's summers are hot with rather humid nights.117 Maximum temperatures usually rise above 30 °C (86 °F),117 but rarely go over 40 °C (104 °F);117 the average number of days the temperature is above 32 °C (90 °F) is 32.117 The maximum recorded temperature in the city was 42 °C (108 °F).117118 Rain seldom falls in summer, mainly during thunderstorms. In the summer months Thessaloniki also experiences strong heat waves.120 The hottest month of the year in the city is July, with an average 24-hour temperature of 26 °C (79 °F).119 The average wind speed for June and July in Thessaloniki is 20 kilometres per hour (12 mph).117
|Climate data for Thessaloniki|
|Record high °C (°F)||20.8
|Average high °C (°F)||9.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.3
|Average low °C (°F)||1.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−14.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||36.8
|Avg. precipitation days||11.8||11.3||12.4||11.2||10.7||7.5||5.9||4.7||5.9||8.7||11.5||12.5||114.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||98.7||102.6||147.2||202.6||252.7||296.4||325.7||295.8||229.9||165.5||117.8||102.6||2,337.5|
|Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN),121 NOAA122 for data of sunshine hours|
According to the Kallikratis reform, as of 1 January 2011 the Thessaloniki Urban Area (Greek: Πολεοδομικό Συγκρότημα Θεσσαλονίκης) which makes up the "City of Thessaloniki", is made up of six self-governing municipalities (Greek: Δήμοι) and one municipal unit (Greek: Δημοτική ενότητα). The municipalities that are included in the Thessaloniki Urban Area are those of Thessaloniki (the city center and largest in population size), Kalamaria, Neapoli-Sykies, Pavlos Melas, Kordelio-Evosmos, Ampelokipoi-Menemeni, and the municipal unit of Pylaia, part of the municipality of Pylaia-Chortiatis. Prior to the Kallikratis reform, the Thessaloniki Urban Area was made up of twice as many municipalities, considerably smaller in size, which created bureaucratic problems.123
The municipality of Thessaloniki (Greek: Δήμος Θεσαλονίκης) is the second most populous in Greece, after Athens, with a population of 322,2401 people (in 2011) and an area of 17.832 km2 (7 sq mi). The municipality forms the core of the Thessaloniki Urban Area, with its central district (the city center), referred to as the Kentro, meaning 'center' or 'downtown'.
The institution of mayor of Thessaloniki was inaugurated under the Ottoman Empire, in 1912. The first mayor of Thessaloniki was Osman Sait Bey, while the current mayor of the municipality of Thessaloniki is Yiannis Boutaris. In 2011, the municipality of Thessaloniki had a budget of €464.33 million124 while the budget of 2012 stands at €409.00 million.125
According to an article in The New York Times, the way in which the present mayor of Thessaloniki is treating the city's debt and oversized administration problems could be used as an example by Greece's central government for a successful strategy in dealing with these problems.126
Thessaloniki is the second largest city in Greece. It is an influential city for the northern parts of the country and is the capital of the region of Central Macedonia and the Thessaloniki regional unit. The Ministry of Macedonia and Thrace is also based in Thessaloniki, being that the city is the de facto capital of the Greek region of Macedonia.
It is customary every year for the Prime Minister of Greece to announce his administration's policies on a number of issues, such as the economy, at the opening night of the Thessaloniki International Trade Fair. In 2010, during the first months of the 2010 Greek debt crisis, the entire cabinet of Greece met in Thessaloniki to discuss the country's future.127
In the Hellenic Parliament, the Thessaloniki urban area constitutes a 16-seat constituency. As of the national elections of 17 June 2012 the largest party in Thessaloniki is New Democracy with 27.8%, followed by the Coalition of the Radical Left (27.0%) and the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (10.2%).128 The table below summarizes the results of the latest elections.
|Party||Votes||%||Shift||Seats in Parliament|
|Coalition of the Radical Left||91,501||26.95%||9.5%||4|
|Panhellenic Socialist Movement||34,734||10.23%||0.2%||1|
|Communist Party of Greece||15,278||4.50%||4.8%||1|
|Other parties (unrepresented)||28,450||7.41%||66.4%||0|
Architecture in Thessaloniki is the direct result of the city's position at the centre of all historical developments in the Balkans. Aside from its commercial importance, Thessaloniki was also for many centuries the military and administrative hub of the region, and beyond this the transportation link between Europe and the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel / Palestine). Merchants, traders and refugees from all over Europe settled in the city. The need for commercial and public buildings in this new era of prosperity led to the construction of large edifices in the city center. During this time, the city saw the building of banks, large hotels, theatres, warehouses, and factories. Architects who designed some of the most notable buildings of the city, in the late 19th and early 20th century, include Vitaliano Poselli, Pietro Arrigoni, Xenophon Paionidis, Eli Modiano, Moshé Jacques, Jean Joseph Pleyber, Frederic Charnot, Ernst Ziller, Roubens Max, Levi Ernst, Angelos Siagas and others, using mainly the styles of Eclecticism and Art Nouveau.
The city layout changed after 1870, when the seaside fortifications gave way to extensive piers, and many of the oldest walls of the city were demolished, including those surrounding the White Tower, which today stands as the main landmark of the city. As parts of the early Byzantine walls were demolished, this allowed the city to expand east and west along the coast.129
The expansion of Eleftherias Square towards the sea completed the new commercial hub of the city and at the time was considered one of the most vibrant squares of the city. As the city grew, workers moved to the western districts, due to their proximity to factories and industrial activities; while the middle and upper classes gradually moved from the city-center to the eastern suburbs, leaving mainly businesses. In 1917, a devastating fire swept through the city and burned uncontrollably for 32 hours.71 It destroyed the city's historic center and a large part of its architectural heritage, but paved the way for modern development and allowed Thessaloniki the development of a proper European city center, featuring wider diagonal avenues and monumental squares; which the city initially lacked – much of what was considered to be 'essential' in European architecture.71130
After the Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917, a team of architects and urban planners including Thomas Mawson and Ernest Hebrard, a French architect, chose the Byzantine era as the basis of their (re)building designs for Thessaloniki's city center. The new city plan included axes, diagonal streets and monumental squares, with a street grid that would channel traffic smoothly. The plan of 1917 included provisions for future population expansions and a street and road network that would be, and still is sufficient today.71 It contained sites for public buildings and provided for the restoration of Byzantine churches and Ottoman mosques.
Today the city center of Thessaloniki includes the features designed as part of the plan and forms the point in the city where most of the public buildings, historical sites, entertainment venues and stores are located. The center is characterized by its many historical buildings, arcades, laneways and distinct architectural styles such as Art Nouveau and Art Deco, which can be seen on many of its buildings.
Also called the historic center, it is divided into several districts, of which include Ladadika (where many entertainment venues and tavernas are located), Kapani (were the city's central city market is located), Diagonios, Navarinou, Rotonta, Agia Sofia and Ippodromio (white tower), which are all located around Thessaloniki's most central point, Aristotelous Square.
The west point of the city center is home to Thessaloniki's law courts, its central international railway station and the port, while on its eastern side stands the city's two universities, the Thessaloniki International Exhibition Center, the city's main stadium, its archaeological and Byzantine museums, the new city hall and its central parklands and gardens, namely those of the ΧΑΝΘ/Palios Zoologikos Kipos and Pedio tou Areos. The central road arteries that pass through the city center, designed in the Ernest Hebrard plan, include those of Tsimiski, Egnatia, Nikis, Mitropoleos, Venizelou and St. Demetrius avenues.
Ano Poli (also called Old Town and literally the Upper Town) is the heritage listed district north of Thessaloniki's city center that was not engulfed by the great fire of 1917 and was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site by ministerial actions of Melina Merkouri, during the 1980s. It consists of Thessaloniki's most traditional part of the city, still featuring small stone paved streets, old squares and homes featuring old Greek and Ottoman architecture.
Ano Poli also, is the highest point in Thessaloniki and as such, is the location of the city's acropolis, its Byzantine fort, the Heptapyrgion, a large portion of the city's remaining walls, and with many of its additional Ottoman and Byzantine structures still standing. The area provides access to the Seich Sou Forest National Park131 and features amphitheatric views of the whole city and the Thermaic Gulf. On clear days Mount Olympus, at about 100 km (62 mi) away across the gulf, can also be seen towering the horizon.
Southeastern Thessaloniki up until the 1920s was home to the city's most affluent residents and formed the outermost suburbs of the city at the time, with the area close to the Thermaic Gulf coast called Exoches, from the 19th century holiday villas which defined the area. Today southeastern Thessaloniki has in some way become a natural extension of the city center, with the avenues of Megalou Alexandrou, Georgiou Papandreou (Antheon), Vasilissis Olgas Avenue, Delfon, Konstantinou Karamanli (Nea Egnatia) and Papanastasiou passing through it, enclosing an area traditionally called Dépôt (Ντεπώ), from the name of the old tram station, owned by a French company. The area extends to Kalamaria and Pylaia, about 9 km (5.59 mi) from the White Tower in the city centre.
Some of the most notable mansions and villas of the old-era of the city remain along Vasilissis Olgas Avenue. Built for the most wealthy residents and designed by well known architects they are used today as museums, art galleries or remain as private properties. Some of them include Villa Bianca, Villa Ahmet Kapanci, Villa Modiano, Villa Mordoch, Villa Mehmet Kapanci, Hatzilazarou Mansion, Chateau Mon Bonheur (often called red tower) and others.
Most of southeastern Thessaloniki is characterized by its modern architecture and apartment buildings, home to the middle-class and more than half of the municipality of Thessaloniki population. Today this area of the city is also home to 3 of the city's main football stadiums, the Thessaloniki Concert Hall, the Posidonio aquatic and athletic complex, the Naval Command post of Northern Greece and the old royal palace (called Palataki), located on the most westerly point of Karabournaki cape. The municipality of Kalamaria is also located in southeastern Thessaloniki and has become this part of the city's most sought after areas, with many open spaces and home to high end bars, cafés and entertainment venues, most notably on Plastira street, along the coast.
Northwestern Thessaloniki had always been associated with industry and the working class because as the city grew during the 1920s, many workers had moved there, due to its proximity near factories and industrial activities. Today many factories and industries have been moved further out west and the area is experiencing rapid growth as does the southeast. Many factories in this area have been converted to cultural centres, while past military grounds that are being surrounded by densely built neighborhoods are awaiting transformation into parklands.
Northwest Thessaloniki forms the main entry point into the city of Thessaloniki with the avenues of Monastiriou, Lagkada and 26is Octovriou passing through it, as well as the extension of the A1 motorway, feeding into Thessaloniki's city center. The area is home to the Macedonia InterCity Bus Terminal (KTEL), the Zeitenlik Allied memorial military cemetery and to large entertainment venues of the city, such as Milos, Fix, Vilka (which are housed in converted old factories). Northwestern Thessaloniki is also home to Moni Lazariston, located in Stavroupoli, which today forms one of the most important cultural centers for the city.132
Due to Thessaloniki's importance during the early Christian and Byzantine periods, the city is host to several paleochristian monuments that have significantly contributed to the development of Byzantine art and architecture throughout the Byzantine Empire as well as Serbia.107 The evolution of Imperial Byzantine architecture and the prosperity of Thessaloniki go hand in hand, especially during the first years of the Empire,107 when the city continued to flourish. It was at that time that the Complex of Roman emperor Galerius was built, as well as the first church of Hagios Demetrios.107
By the 8th century, the city had become an important administrative center of the Byzantine Empire, and handled much of the Empire's Balkan affairs.133 During that time, the city saw the creation of more notable Christian churches that are now UNESCO World Heritage Sites, such as Hagia Sophia of Thessaloniki, the Church of the Acheiropoietos, the Church of Panagia Chalkeon.107 When the Ottoman Empire took control of Thessaloniki in 1430, most of the city's churches were converted into mosques,107 but have survived to this day. Travelers such as Paul Lucas and Abdul Meciddisambiguation needed107 document the city's wealth in Christian monuments during the years of the Ottoman control of the city.
The church of Hagios Demetrios was burnt down during the Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917, as did many other of the city's monuments, but it was rebuilt. During the Second World War, the city was extensively bombed and as such many of Thessaloniki's paleochristian and Byzantine monuments were heavily damaged.133 Some of the sites were not restored until the 1980s. Thessaloniki has more UNESCO World Heritage Sites listed than any other city in Greece, a total of 15 monuments.107 They have been listed since 1988.107
In regards to the 100th anniversary of the incorporation of Thessaloniki into Greece, during 1912, the government announced a large-scale redevelopment program for the city of Thessaloniki, which aims in addressing the current environmental and spatial problems134 that the city faces. More specifically, the program will drastically change the physiognomy of the city134 by relocating the Thessaloniki International Exhibition Center and grounds of the Thessaloniki International Trade Fair outside the city centre and turning the current location into a large metropolitan park,135 redeveloping the coastal front of the city,135 relocating the city's numerous military camps and using the grounds and facilities to create large parklands and cultural centers;135 and the complete redevelopment of the harbor and the Lachanokipoi and Dendropotamos districts (behind and near the Port of Thessaloniki) into a commercial business district,135 with possible highrise developments.136
The plan also envisions the creation of new wide avenues in the outskirts of the city135 and the creation of pedestrian-only zones in the city center.135 Furthermore, the program includes plans to expand the jurisdiction of Seich Sou Forest National Park134 and the improvement of accessibility to and from the Old Town.134 The ministry has said that the project will take an estimated 15 years to be completed, in 2025.135
Part of the plan has been implemented with extensive pedestrianization's within the city center by the municipality of Thessaloniki and the revitalization the eastern urban waterfront/promenade, Nea Paralia (Greek: Νέα Παραλία, literally new beach), with a modern and vibrant design. Its first section opened in 2008, having been awarded as the best public project in Greece of the last five years by the Hellenic Institute of Architecture.137
The municipality of Thessaloniki's budget for the reconstruction of important areas of the city and the completion of the waterfront, opened in January 2014, was estimated at around €28.2 million (US$39.9 million) for the year 2011 alone.138
|Economy of Thessaloniki|
GDP of the Thessaloniki regional unit 2000–2011
|Rank||2nd in Greece|
|GDP||€19.851 billion (PPP, 2011)2|
GDP per capita
|€17,200 (PPP, 2011)2|
Thessaloniki rose to economic prominence as a major economic hub in the Balkans during the years of the Roman Empire. The Pax Romana and the city's strategic position allowed for the facilitation of trade between Rome and Byzantium (later Constantinople and now Istanbul) through Thessaloniki by means of the Via Egnatia.141 The Via Egnatia also functioned as an important line of communication between the Roman Empire and the nations of Asia,141 particularly in relation to the Silk Road. With the partition of the Roman Emp. into East(Byzantine) and West, Thessaloniki became the second-largest city of the Eastern Roman Empire after New Rome (Constantinople) in terms of economic might.33141 Under the Empire, Thessaloniki was the largest port in the Balkans.142 As the city passed from Byzantium to the Republic of Venice in 1423, it was subsequently conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Under Ottoman rule the city retained its position as the most important trading hub in the Balkans.63 Manufacturing, shipping and trade were the most important components of the city's economy during the Ottoman period,63 and the majority of the city's trade at the time was controlled by ethnic Greeks.63
Historically important industries for the economy of Thessaloniki included tobacco (in 1946 35% of all tobacco companies in Greece were headquartered in the city, and 44% in 1979)143 and banking (in Ottoman years Thessaloniki was a major center for investment from western Europe, with the Bank of Thessaloniki (French: Banque de Salonique) having a capital of 20 million French francs in 1909).63
The service sector accounts for nearly two thirds of the total labour force of Thessaloniki.144 Of those working in services, 20% were employed in trade, 13% in education and healthcare, 7.1% in real estate, 6.3% in transport, communications & storing, 6.1% in the finance industry & service-providing organizations, 5.7% in public administration & insurance services and 5.4% in hotels & restaurants.144
The city's port, the Port of Thessaloniki, is one of the largest ports in the Aegean and as a free port, it functions as a major gateway to the Balkan hinterland.7145 In 2010, more than 15.8 million tons of products went through the city's port,146 making it the second-largest port in Greece after Aghioi Theodoroi, surpassing Piraeus. At 273,282 TEUs, it is also Greece's second-largest container port after Piraeus.147 As a result, the city is a major transportation hub for the whole of south-eastern Europe,148 carrying, among other things, trade to and from the neighbouring countries.
In recent years Thessaloniki has began to turn into a major port for cruising in the eastern Mediterranean.145 The Greek ministry of tourism considers Thessaloniki to be Greece's second most important commercial port,149 and companies such as Royal Caribbean International have expressed interested in adding the Port of Thessaloniki to their destinations.149 A total of 30 cruise ships are expected to arrive at Thessaloniki in 2011.149
In recent years a spate of factory shut downs has occurred as companies take advantage of cheaper labour markets and more lax regulations in other areas. Among the largest companies to shut down factories are Goodyear,150 AVEZ (the first industrial factory in northern Greece, built in 1926),151 and VIAMIL (ΒΙΑΜΥΛ). Nevertheless Thessaloniki still remains a major business hub in the Balkans, with a number of important Greek companies headquartered in the city, such as the Hellenic Vehicle Industry, the Macedonian Milk Industry, Philkeram Johnson and MLS Multimedia, which introduced the first Greek-built smartphone in 2012.152
In 2011, the regional unit of Thessaloniki had a Gross Domestic Product of €18.293 billion (ranked 2nd amongst the country's regional units),2 comparable to Bahrain or Cyprus, and a per capita of €15,900 (ranked 16th).2 In Purchasing Power Parity, the same indicators are €19,851 billion (2nd)2 and €17,200 (15th) respectively.2 In terms of comparison with the European Union average, Thessaloniki's GDP per capita indicator stands at 63% the EU average2 and 69% in PPP2 – this is comparable to the German state of Brandenburg.2 Overall, Thessaloniki accounts for 8.9% of the total economy of Greece.2 Between 1995 and 2008 Thessaloniki's GDP saw an average growth rate of 4.1% per annum (ranging from +14.5% in 1996 to -11.1% in 2005) while in 2011 the economy contracted by -7.8%.2
The tables below show the ethnic statistics of Thessaloniki during the end of the 19th and the beginning of 20th century.
|Year||Total Population||Jewish||Turkish (Muslim)||Greek||Bulgarian||Roma||Other|
|From 2001 on, data on the city's urban area.
The municipality of Thessaloniki is the most populated municipality of all the municipalities that are part of the Thessaloniki Urban Area and make up the "City of Thessaloniki". Although the population of the municipality of Thessaloniki has declined in the latest census, the metropolitan area's population is still growing. The city forms the base of the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area, with latest census in 2011 giving it a population of 1,006,730.1
|Year||Municipality||Urban area||Metropolitan area||rank|
The Jewish population in Greece is the oldest in mainland Europe (see Romaniotes). When Paul the Apostle came in Thessaloniki he taught in the area of what today is called Upper City. Later, during the Ottoman period, with the coming of Sephardic Jews from Spain, the community of Thessaloniki became mostly Sephardic. Thessaloniki became the largest center in Europe of the Sephardic Jews, who nicknamed the city la madre de Israel (Israel's mother)98 and "Jerusalem of the Balkans".159 It also included the historically significant and ancient Greek-speaking Romaniote community. During the Ottoman era, Thessaloniki's Sephardic community comprised more than half the city's population; Jewish merchants were prominent in commerce until the ethnic Greek population increased after independence in 1912. By the 1680s, about 300 families of Sephardic Jews, followers of Sabbatai Zevi, had converted to Islam, becoming a sect known as the Dönmeh (convert), and migrated to Salonika, whose population was majority Jewish. They established an active community that thrived for about 250 years. Many of their descendants later became prominent in trade.160 Many Jewish inhabitants of Thessaloniki spoke Ladino, the Romance language of the Sephardic Jews.161
From the second half of 19th century with the Ottoman reforms, the Jewish community had a new revival. Many French and especially Italian Jews (from Livorno and other cities), influential in introducing new methods of education and developing new schools and intellectual environment for the Jewish population, were established in Thessaloniki. Such modernists introduced also new techniques and ideas from the industrialized Western Europe and from the 1880s the city began to industrialize. The Italian Jews Allatini brothers led Jewish entrepreneurship, establishing milling and other food industries, brickmaking and processing plants for tobacco. Several traders supported the introduction of a large textile-production industry, superseding the weaving of cloth in a system of artisanal production. Other notable names of the era include the Italian Jewish Modiano family and the Italians Poselli. With industrialization, many people of all faiths became factory workers, part of a new proletariat, which later led to the establishment of the Socialist Workers' Federation.
After the Balkan Wars, Thessaloniki was incorporated into the Greek Kingdom. At first the community feared that the annexation would lead to difficulties and during the first years its political stance was, in general, anti-Venizelist and pro-royalist/conservative. The Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917 during the WWI burned much of the center of the city and left 50,000 Jews homeless of the total of 72,000 residents who were burned out.93 Having lost homes and their businesses, many Jews emigrated: to the United States, Palestine, and Paris. They could not wait for the government to create a new urban plan for rebuilding, which was eventually done.162
After the Greco-Turkish War in 1922 and the expulsion of Greeks from Turkey, many refugees came to Greece. Nearly 100,000 ethnic Greeks resettled in Thessaloniki, reducing the proportion of Jews in the total community. After this, Jews made up about 20% of the city's population. During the interwar period, Greece granted Jewish citizens the same civil rights as other Greek citizens.93 In March 1926, Greece re-emphasized that all citizens of Greece enjoyed equal rights, and a considerable proportion of the city's Jews decided to stay. During the Metaxas regime the stance towards Jews became even better.
World War II brought a disaster for the Jewish Greeks, since in 1941 the Germans occupied Greece and began actions against the Jewish population. Greeks of the Resistance helped save some of the Jewish residents.98 By the 1940s, the great majority of the Jewish Greek community firmly identified as both Greek and Jewish. According to Misha Glenny, such Greek Jews had largely not encountered "anti-Semitism as in its North European form."163
In 1943 the Nazis began brutal, inhumane actions against the historic Jewish population in Thessaloniki, forcing them into a ghetto near the railroad lines and beginning deportation to concentration and labor camps where they dehumanized their captives. They deported and exterminated approximately 96% of Thessaloniki's Jews of all ages during the Holocaust.98 The Thessaloniki Holocaust memorial in Eleftherias ("Freedom") Square was built in 1997 in memory of all the Jewish people from Thessaloniki, who died in the Holocaust. The site was chosen because it was the place where Jews residents were rounded up before embarking to trains for concentration camps.164165 Today, a community of around 1200 remains in the city.98 Communities of descendants of Thessaloniki Jews – both Sephardic and Romaniote – live in other areas, mainly the United States and Israel.98 Israeli singer Yehuda Poliker recorded a song about the Jewish people of Thessaloniki, called "Wait for me, Thessaloniki". Not only did the Jewish-Greek population of Thessaloniki perish during the Holocaust, but a unique civilization filled with rich culture and beauty was lost.
|1842||70,000||36,000||51%||Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer|
|1870||90,000||50,000||56%||Greek schoolbook (G.K. Moraitopoulos, 1882)|
|1882/84||85,000||48,000||56%||Ottoman government census|
|1902||126,000||62,000||49%||Ottoman government census|
|1913||157,889||61,439||39%||Greek government census|
Since the late 19th century, many merchants from Western Europe (mainly from France and Italy) were established in the city. They had an important role in the social and economical life of the city and in many cases introduced new industrial techniques. Their main district was what is known today as the "Frankish district" (near Ladadika), where locates also the Catholic church designed by Vitaliano Poselli. Some of them left after the incorporation of the city into the Greek Kingdom, others, who were of Jewish faith, were exterminated by the Nazis, while others stayed and their descendants still live in the city.
Another group is the Armenian community which dates back to the Ottoman period. During the 20th century, after the Armenian Genocide and the defeat of the Greek army in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), many fled to Greece and a large part of them was established in Thessaloniki. There is also an Armenian church at the center of the city.
Thessaloniki is not only regarded as the cultural and entertainment capital of northern Greece133167 but also the cultural capital of the country.8 The city's main theaters, run by the National Theatre of Northern Greece (Greek: Κρατικό Θέατρο Βορείου Ελλάδος) which was established in 1961,168 include the Theater of the Society of Macedonian Studies, where the National Theater is based, the Royal Theater (Vasiliko Theatro) -the first base of the National Theater-, Moni Lazariston, and the Earth Theater and Forest Theater, both amphitheatrical open-air theatres overlooking the city.168
The title of the European Capital of Culture in 1997 saw the birth of the city's first opera169 and today forms an independent section of the National Theatre of Northern Greece.170 The opera is based at the Thessaloniki Concert Hall, one of the largest concert halls in Greece. Recently a second building was also constructed and designed by Japanese architect Arata Isozaki. Thessaloniki is also the seat of two symphony orchestras, the Thessaloniki State Symphony Orchestra and the Symphony Orchestra of the Municipality of Thessaloniki. Olympion Theater, the site of the Thessaloniki International Film Festival and the Plateia Assos Odeon multiplex are the two major cinemas in downtown Thessaloniki. The city also has a number of multiplex cinemas in major shopping malls in the suburbs, most notably in Mediterranean Cosmos, the largest retail and entertainment development in the Balkans.
Thessaloniki is renowned for its major shopping streets and lively laneways. Tsimiski Street and Proxenou Koromila avenue are the city's most famous shopping streets and are among Greece's most expensive and exclusive high streets. The city is also home to one of Greece's most famous and prestigious hotels, Makedonia Palace hotel, the Hyatt Regency Casino and hotel (the biggest casino in Greece and one of the biggest in Europe) and Waterland, the largest water park in southeastern Europe.
The city has always been known between Greeks for its vibrant city culture, including having the most cafe's and bars per-capita than any other city in Europe; and as having some of the best nightlife and entertainment in the country, thanks to its large young population and multicultural feel. Only recently has the city been exposing itself to the world and becoming more known for what it is, with Lonely Planet listing Thessaloniki as the world's fifth-best "ultimate party city".171
Although Thessaloniki is not renowned for its parks and greenery throughout its urban area, where green spaces are few, it has several large open spaces around its waterfront, namely the central city gardens of Palios Zoologikos Kipos (which is recently being redeveloped to also include rock climbing facilities, a new skatepark and paintball range),172 the park of Pedio tou Areos, which also holds the city's annual floral expo; and the parks of the Nea Paralia (waterfront) that span for 3 km (2 mi) along the coast, from the White Tower to the concert hall.
The Nea Paralia parks are used throughout the year for a variety of events, while they open up to the Thessaloniki waterfront, which is lined up with several cafés and bars; and during summer is full of Thessalonians enjoying their long evening walks (referred to as "the volta" and is embedded into the culture of the city). Having undergone an extensive revitalization, the city's waterfront today features a total of 12 thematic gardens/parks.173
Thessaloniki's proximity to places such as the national parks of Pieria and beaches of Chalkidiki often allow its residents to easily have access to some of the best outdoor recreation in Europe, however the city is also right next to the Seich Sou forest national park, just 3.5 km (2 mi) away from Thessaloniki's city center; and offers residents and visitors alike, quiet viewpoints towards the city, mountain bike trails and landscaped hiking paths.174 The city's zoo, which is operated by the municipality of Thessaloniki, is also located nearby the national park.175
Other recreation spaces throughout the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area include the Fragma Thermis, a landscaped parkland near Thermi and the Delta wetlands west of the city center; while urban beaches that have continuously been awarded the blue flags,176 are located along the 10 km (6 mi) coastline of Thessaloniki's southeastern suburbs of Thermaikos, about 20 km (12 mi) away from the city center.
Due to the city's rich and diverse history, Thessaloniki houses many museums dealing with many different eras in history. Two of the city's most famous museums include the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki and the Museum of Byzantine Culture.
The Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki was established in 1962 and houses some of the most important ancient Macedonian artifacts,177 including an extensive collection of golden artwork from the royal palaces of Aigai and Pella.178 It also houses exhibits from Macedon's prehistoric past, dating from the Neolithic to the Bronze age.179 The Prehistoric Antiquities Museum of Thessaloniki has exhibits from those periods as well.
The Museum of Byzantine Culture is one of the city's most famous museums, showcasing the city's glorious Byzantine past.180 The museum was also awarded Council of Europe's museum prize in 2005.181 The museum of the White Tower of Thessaloniki houses a series of galleries relating to the city's past, from the creation of the White Tower until recent years.182
One of the most modern museums in the city is the Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum and is one of the most high-tech museums in Greece and southeastern Europe.183 It features the largest planetarium in Greece, a cosmotheater with the largest flat screen in Greece, an amphitheater, a motion simulator with 3D projection and 6-axis movement and exhibition spaces.183 Other industrial and technological museums in the city include the Railway Museum of Thessaloniki, which houses an original Orient Express train, the War Museum of Thessaloniki and others. The city also has a number of educational and sports museums, including the Thessaloniki Olympic Museum.
The Atatürk Museum in Thessaloniki is the historic house where Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern-day Turkey, was born. The house is now part of the Turkish consulate complex, but admission to the museum is free.184 The museum contains historic information about Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his life, especially while he was in Thessaloniki.184 Other ethnological museums of the sort include the Historical Museum of the Balkan Wars, the Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki and the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle, containing information about the freedom fighters in Macedonia and their struggle to liberate the region from the Ottoman yoke.185
The city also has a number of important art galleries. Such include the Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art, housing exhibitions from a number of well-known Greek and foreign artists.186 The Teloglion Foundation of Art is part of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and includes an extensive collection of works by important artists of the 19th and 20th centuries, including works by prominent Greeks and native Thessalonians.187 The Thessaloniki Museum of Photography also houses a number of important exhibitions, and is located within the old port of Thessaloniki.188
Thessaloniki is home to a number of prominent archaeological sites. Apart from its recognized UNESCO World Heritage Sites, Thessaloniki features a large two-terraced Roman forum189 featuring two-storey stoas,190 dug up by accident in the 1960s.189 The forum complex also boasts two Roman baths,191 one of which has been excavated while the other is buried underneath the city.191 The forum also features a small theater,189191 which was also used for gladiatorial games.190 Although the initial complex was not built in Roman times, it was largely refurbished in the 2nd century.191 It is believed that the forum and the theater continued to be used until at least the 6th century.192
Another important archaeological site is the imperial palace complex which Roman emperor Galerius, located at Navarinou Square, commissioned when he made Thessaloniki the capital of his portion of the Roman Empire.2829 The large octagonal portion of the complex, most of which survives to this day, is believed to have been an imperial throne room.190 Various mosaics from the palatial complex have also survived.193 Some historians believe that the complex must have been in use as an imperial residence until the 11th century.192
Not far from the palace itself is the Arch of Galerius,193 known colloquially as the Kamara. The arch was built to commemorate the emperor's campaigns against the Persians.190193 The original structure featured three arches,190 however only two full arches and part of the third survive to this day. Many of the arches' marble parts survive as well,190 although it is mostly the brick interior that can be seen today.
Other monuments of the city's past, such as the Incantadas, a Caryatid portico from the ancient forum, have been removed or destroyed over the years. The Incantadas in particular are on display at the Louvre.189194 Thanks to a private donation of €180,000, it was announced on 6 December 2011 that a replica of the Incantadas would be commissioned and later put on display in Thessaloniki.194
Thessaloniki is home of a number of festivals and events. The Thessaloniki International Trade Fair is the most important event to be hosted in the city annually, by means of economic development. It was first established in 1926195 and takes place every year at the 180,000 m2 (1,937,503.88 sq ft) Thessaloniki International Exhibition Center. The event attracts major political attention and it is customary for the Prime Minister of Greece to outline his administration's policies for the next year, during event. Over 250,000 visitors attended the exposition in 2010.196
The Thessaloniki International Film Festival is established as one of the most important film festivals in Southern Europe,197 with a number of notable film makers such as Francis Ford Coppola, Faye Dunaway, Catherine Deneuve, Irene Papas and Fatih Akın taking part, and was established in 1960.198 The Documentary Festival, founded in 1999, has focused on documentaries that explore global social and cultural developments, with many of the films presented being candidates for FIPRESCI and Audience Awards.199
The Dimitria festival, founded in 1966 and named after the city's patron saint of St. Demetrius, has focused on a wide range of events including music, theatre, dance, local happenings, and exhibitions.200 The "DMC DJ Championship" has been hosted at the International Trade Fair of Thessaloniki and has become a worldwide event for aspiring DJs and turntablists. The "International Festival of Photography" has taken place every February to mid-April.201 Exhibitions for the event are sited in museums, heritage landmarks, galleries, bookshops and cafés. Thessaloniki also holds an annual International Book Fair.202
In 2012, the city hosted its first gay parade, namely the Thessaloniki Pride which took place between 22 and 23 June.205 In 2013, the second Thessaloniki Pride was hosted between 14th and 15 June.206 However in 2013, Transgender people in Thessaloniki became victims of police violence. The issue was soon settled by the government.207 The third Thessaloniki Pride took place in 2014, between 20 and 21 of June, concetrating more people than any past year.208
The main stadium of the city is the Kaftanzoglio Stadium (also home ground of Iraklis FC), while other main stadiums of the city include the football Toumba Stadium and Kleanthis Vikelidis Stadium, home grounds of PAOK FC and Aris FC respectively, all of whom are founding members of the Greek league.
Being the largest "multi-sport" stadium in the city, Kaftanzoglio Stadium regularly plays host to athletics events; such as the European Athletics Association event "Olympic Meeting Thessaloniki" every year; it has hosted the Greek national championships in 2009 and has been used for athletics at the Mediterranean Games and for the European Cup in athletics. In 2004 the stadium served as an official Athens 2004 venue,209 while in 2009 the city and the stadium hosted the 2009 IAAF World Athletics Final.
Thessaloniki's major indoor arenas include the state-owned Alexandreio Melathron, PAOK Sports Arena and the YMCA indoor hall. Other sporting clubs in the city include Apollon FC based in Kalamaria, Agrotikos Asteras FC based in Evosmos and YMCA. Thessaloniki has a rich sporting history with its teams winning the first ever panhellenic football,210 basketball,211 and water polo212 tournaments.
The city played a major role in the development of basketball in Greece. The local YMCA was the first to introduce the sport to the country, while Iraklis BC won the first ever Greek championship.211 From 1982 to 1993 Aris BC dominated the league, regularly finishing in first place. In that period Aris won a total of 9 championships, 7 cups and one European Cup Winners' Cup. The city also hosted the 2003 FIBA Under-19 World Championship in which Greece came third. In volleyball, Iraklis has emerged since 2000 as one of the most successful teams in Greece213 and Europe - see 2005–06 CEV Champions League.214 In October 2007, Thessaloniki also played host to the first Southeastern European Games.215
|Iraklis||1908||Kaftanzoglio National Stadium||27,770|
|Aris||1914||Kleanthis Vikelidis Stadium||22,800|
|Alexandreio Melathron (Palais des Sports)||5,500|
|YMCA Thessaloniki (ΧΑΝΘ)||1921|
|PAOK Sports Arena||8,700|
|Agrotikos Asteras||1932||Evosmos Stadium|
Thessaloniki is home to the ERT3 TV-channel and Radio Macedonia, both services of Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (ERT) operating in the city and are broadcast all over Greece.217 The municipality of Thessaloniki also operates three radio stations, namely FM100, FM101 and FM100.6;218 and TV100, a television network which was also the first non-state-owned TV station in Greece and opened in 1988.218 Several private TV-networks also broadcast out from Thessaloniki, with Makedonia TV being the most popular.
The city's main newspapers and some of the most circulated in Greece, include Makedonia, which was also the first newspaper published in Thessaloniki in 1911 and Aggelioforos. A large number of radio stations also broadcast from Thessaloniki as the city is known for its music contributions.
Throughout its history, Thessaloniki has been home to a number of well-known figures like Nikolaos Polychronakos. It is also the birthplace of various Saints and other religious figures, such as Cyril and Methodius, creators of the first Slavic alphabet, Saint Mitre, Patriarch Philotheus I of Constantinople and Archbishop Demetrios of America. Many of Greece's most celebrated musicians and movie stars were born in Thessaloniki, such as Zoe Laskari, Costas Hajihristos, Antonis Remos, Paschalis Terzis, Natassa Theodoridou, Katia Zygouli, Kostas Voutsas, Marios Iliopoulos and Marinella. Additionally, there have been a number of political leaders born in the city Evangelos Venizelos, the current Minister of Finance of Greece, Haris Kastanidis, Christos Sartzetakis, fourth President of Greece, Kostas Zouraris and Ioannis Passalidis. Sports personalities from the city include Eleni Daniilidou, Dimitris Salpingidis, Traianos Dellas, Kleanthis Vikelidis and Ioannis Tamouridis. Ioannis Papafis and Elias Petropoulos were also born in Thessaloniki.
The city is also the birthplace of a number of important international personalities, which include Bulgarians (Atanas Dalchev), Jews (Moshe Levy, Daniel Zion, Samuel ben Joseph Uziel, Shlomo Halevi Alkabetz), Slav Macedonians (Dimo Todorovski) and Turks (Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Nâzım Hikmet, Afet İnan, Cahit Arf, Mehmet Cavit Bey, Salih Omurtak, Sabiha Sertel, Halil Rifat Pasha).
Due to the fact that Thessaloniki remained under Ottoman rule for about 100 years more than southern Greece, it has retained a lot of its Eastern character, including its culinary tastes.219 Spices in particular play an important role in the cuisine of Thessaloniki,219 something which is not true to the same degree about Greece's southern regions.219 Thessaloniki's Ladadika borough is a particularly busy area in regards to Thessalonian cuisine, with most tavernas serving traditional meze and other such culinary delights.219
Notable sweets of the city are Trigona, Roxakia and Armenovil. A stereotypical Thessalonian coffee drink is Frappé coffee. Frappé was invented in the Thessaloniki International Trade Fair in 1957 and has since spread throughout Greece and Cyprus to become a hallmark of the Greek coffee culture.
The city is viewed as a romantic one in Greece, and as such Thessaloniki is commonly featured in Greek songs.220 There are a number of famous songs that go by the name 'Thessaloniki' (rebetiko, laïko etc.) or include the name in their title.221
During the 1930s and 40s the city became a center of the Rebetiko music, partly because of the Metaxas censorship, which was stricter in Athens. Vassilis Tsitsanis wrote some of his best songs in Thessaloniki.
The city is the birthplace of significant composers in the Greek music scene, such as Manolis Chiotis, Stavros Kouyioumtzis and Dionysis Savvopoulos. It is also notable for its rock music scene and its many rock groups; some became famous such as Xylina Spathia, Trypes or the pop rock Onirama.
Between 1962–1997 and 2005–2008 the city also hosted the Thessaloniki Song Festival. In the Eurovision Song Contest 2013 Greece was represented by Koza Mostra and Agathonas Iakovidis, both from Thessaloniki.
- On May 1936, a massive strike by tobacco workers led to general anarchy in the city and Ioannis Metaxas (future dictator, then PM) ordered its repression. The events and the deaths of the protesters inspired Yiannis Ritsos to write the Epitafios.
- On May 22, 1963, Grigoris Lambrakis, pacifist and MP, was assassinated by two far-right extremists driving a three-wheeled vehicle. The event led to political crisis. Costa Gavras directed Z (1969 film) based on it, while in Greece had already established the military junta.
- Notable films set in Thessaloniki among others include Mademoiselle Docteur (1937) by Georg Wilhelm Pabst, The Barefooted Battalion (1954) by Greg Tallas (Gregory Thalassinos), O Atsidas (1961) by Giannis Dalianidis, Parenthesis (1968) by Takis Kanellopoulos and Triumph of the Spirit (1989) by Robert M. Young.
Thessaloniki is a major center of education for Greece. Two of the country's largest universities are located in central Thessaloniki: Aristotle University and the University of Macedonia. Aristotle University was founded in 1926 and is currently the largest university in Greece11 by number of students, which number at more than 80,000 in 2010,11 and is a member of the Utrecht Network. For the academic year 2009–2010, Aristotle University was ranked as one of the 150 best universities in the world for arts and humanities and among the 250 best universities in the world overall by the Times QS World University Rankings,222 making it one of the top 2% of best universities worldwide.223 Leiden ranks Aristotle University as one of the top 100 European universities and the best university in Greece, at number 97.224 Since 2010, Thessaloniki is also home to the Open University of Thessaloniki,225 which is funded by Aristotle University, the University of Macedonia and the municipality of Thessaloniki.
Additionally, a TEI (Technological Educational Institute), namely the Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, is located in the western suburb of Sindos; home also to the industrial zone of the city. Numerous public and private vocational institutes (Greek: IEK) provide professional training to young students, while a large number of private colleges offer American and UK academic curriculum, via cooperation with foreign universities. In addition to Greek students, the city hence attracts many foreign students either via the Erasmus programme for public universities, or for a complete degree in public universities or in the city's private colleges. As of 2006[update] the city's total student population was estimated around 200,000.226
Public transport in Thessaloniki is served by buses. The bus company operating in the city is the Thessaloniki Urban Transport Organization (OASTH) and is the only public means of transport in Thessaloniki at the moment. It operates a fleet of 604 vehicles on 75 routes throughout the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area.227 International and regional bus links are provided by KTEL at its Macedonia InterCity Bus Terminal, located to the west of the city centre.228
The construction of the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Railway began in 2006 and is scheduled for completion in 2018, where it is set to become the city's most vital public transport service.229 The line of Phase 1 is set to extend over 9.6 kilometres (6.0 mi), include 13 stations230 and it is expected to eventually serve 250,000 passengers daily.231 Some stations of the Thessaloniki Metro will house a number of archaeological finds.232
Discussions are already underway for future expansions, in order for the metro network to also serve major transport hubs of the city, notably the Macedonia InterCity Bus Terminal (KTEL) and Macedonia International Airport. For the expansion towards the airport, the Attiko Metro company is considering the construction of an overground network or a monorail. The expansion to Kalamaria, a southeast borough of Thessaloniki, has already become part of the initial construction phase, while future expansions are considered and planned for Efkarpia to the north and Evosmos to the west. The strategic plan for the construction of the Thessaloniki Metro envisions that the city will have a system of 3 lines by 2018 or 2020 at the latest.233
Commuter rail services have recently been established between Thessaloniki and the city of Larissa (the service is known in Greek as the "Proastiakos", meaning "Suburban Railway"). The service is operated using Siemens Desiro EMU trains on a modernised electrified double track and stops at 11 refurbished stations, covering the journey in an 1 hour and 33 minutes.234 Furthermore an additional line has also been established, although with the use of regional trains, between Thessaloniki and the city of Edessa.
Air traffic to and from the city is served by Macedonia International Airport for international and domestic flights. The short length of the airport's two runways means that it does not currently support intercontinental flights, although a major extension, lengthening one of its runways into the Thermaic Gulf is under construction,235 despite considerable opposition from local environmentalist groups. Following the completion of the runway works, the airport will be able to serve intercontinental flights and cater for larger aircraft in the future. A master-plan, with designs for a new terminal building and apron has also been released, and is seeking for funding.236
Due to the Greek economic crisis, all international train links from the city were suspended in February 2011.237 Until then, the city was a major railway hub for the Balkans, with direct connections to Sofia, Skopje, Belgrade, Moscow, Vienna, Budapest, Bucharest and Istanbul, alongside Athens and other destinations in Greece. Daily through trains to Sofia and Belgrade were restarted in May 2014. Thessaloniki remains one of Greece's most important railway hubs and has the biggest marshalling yard in the country.
Regional train services within Greece (operated by TrainOSE, the Hellenic Railways Organization's train operating company), link the city with other parts of the country, from its central railway passenger station, called the "New Railway Station" located at the western end of Thessaloniki's city center.
The Port of Thessaloniki connects the city with seasonal ferries to the Sporades and other north Aegean islands, with its passenger terminal, being one of the largest in the Aegean Sea basin; having handled around 162,731 passengers in 2007.238 Meanwhile, ongoing actions have been going on for more connections and the port is recently being upgraded, as Thessaloniki is also slowly turning into a major tourist port for cruising in the eastern Mediterranean.
The city itself is bypassed by a C-shaped ring road (namely the Esoteriki Peripheriaki Odos (Greek: Εσωτερική Περιφεριακή Οδός, inner ring road)) numbered as the A16, which all of the above motorways connect onto it. The western end of the route begins at the junction with the A1/A2 motorways in Lachanagora District. Clockwise it heads northeast around the city, passing through the northwestern suburbs, the forest of Seich Sou and through to the southeast suburb/borough of Kalamaria. The ring road ends at a large junction with the A25 motorway, which then continues south to Chalkidiki, passing through Thessaloniki's outer southeast suburbs.
The speed limit on this motorway is 90 kilometres per hour (56 mph), it currently has three traffic lanes for each direction and forms the city's most vital road link; handling more than 120,000 vehicles daily,239 instead of 30,000 as it was meant to handle when designed in 1975.240
Furthermore an outer ring road known as Eksoteriki Peripheriaki Odos (Greek: Εξωτερική Περιφεριακή Οδός, outer ring road) is planned, with its west part already built and running as part of the A1/A2 motorways, passing through the outer northwestern suburbs of the city.241
Despite the large effort that was made in 2004 to improve the motorway features of the Thessaloniki ring road, the motorway is still insufficient to tackle Thessaloniki's increasing traffic and metropolitan population. To tackle this problem, the government has introduced large scale redevelopment plans throughout 2011242 with tenders expected to be announced within early 2012;242 that include the total restructuring of the A16 in the western side of the city, with new junctions and new emergency lanes throughout the whole length of the motorway.242 In the eastern side an even larger scale project has been announced, for the construction of a new elevated motorway section above the existing, which would allow faster travel for drivers heading through to the airport and Chalkidiki that do not wish to exit into the city, and will decongest the existing motorway for city commuters.243 The plans also include adding one more lane in each direction on the existing A16 ring road and on the A25 passing through Thessaloniki's southeast suburbs, from its junction with the A16 in Kalamaria, up to the airport exit (ΕΟ67); which will make it an 8 lane highway.242
Additional long term plans further include the extension of the planned outer ring road known as Eksoteriki Peripheriaki Odos (Greek: Εξωτερική Περιφεριακή Οδός, outer ring road) to circle around the entire Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area, crossing over the Thermaic Gulf from the east, to join with the A1/E75 motorway. Preliminary plans have been announced which include a 4.5 km (3 mi) bridge over the gulf, as part of the southern bypass of the city; to cater for the large number of commuters from Macedonia and the rest of Greece heading to the airport, and to the increasingly popular tourist region of Chalkidiki.244
- National Roads:
- "'Πίνακας 1: Προσωρινά αποτελέσματα του Μόνιμου Πληθυσμού της Ελλάδος'". National Statistical Service of Greece: Ανακοίνωση προσωρινών αποτελεσμάτων Απογραφής Πληθυσμού 2011, 22 Ιουλίου 2011.
- "Gross domestic product (GDP) at current market prices at NUTS level 3". Eurostat. 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
- "Πρόγραμμα Καλλικράτης" [Kallikratis Programme]. 2011. p. 22. Retrieved 6 August 2011. "Έδρα της περιφέρειας Κεντρικής Μακεδονίας είναι η Θεσσαλονίκη. (The capital of the region of Central Macedonia is Thessaloniki.)"
- "Πρόγραμμα Καλλικράτης" [Kallikratis Programme]. 2011. p. 25. Retrieved 6 August 2011. "Αποκεντρωμένη Διοίκηση Μακεδονίας – Θράκης, η οποία εκτείνεται στα όρια της περιφέρειας Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας – Θράκης και Κεντρικής Μακεδονίας, με έδρα την Θεσσαλονίκη. ([The creation of the] Decentralized Administration of Macedonia-Thrace, which includes the modern regions of East Macedonia-Thrace and Central Macedonia, with Thessaloniki as capital.)"
- Harry Coccossis, Yannis Psycharis (2008). Regional analysis and policy: the Greek experience. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Manos G. Birēs, Marō Kardamitsē-Adamē (2004). Neoclassical architecture in Greece. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Nicholas Konsolas, Athanassios Papadaskalopoulos, Ilias Plaskovitis (2002). Regional development in Greece. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Introducing Thessaloniki". Lonely Planet travel guides. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- AIGES oHG, www.aiges.net. "SAE – Conventions". En.sae.gr. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- "Η Θεσσαλονίκη Ευρωπαϊκή Πρωτεύουσα Νεολαίας 2014" [Thessaloniki the European Youth Capital 2014]. Municipality of Thessaloniki. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
- "ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI". www.auth.gr. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Greg Elms. "Ultimate party cities - travel tips and articles". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "Best Trips 2013 - Thessaloniki". National Geographic. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "Definition of Thessaloniki". Allwords.com. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- Ανδριώτης (Andriotis), Νικόλαος Π. (Nikolaos P.) (1995). Ιστορία της ελληνικής γλώσσας: (τέσσερις μελέτες) (History of the Greek language: four studies) (in Greek). Θεσσαλονίκη (Thessaloniki): Ίδρυμα Τριανταφυλλίδη. ISBN 960-231-058-8.
- Vitti, Mario (2001). Storia della letteratura neogreca (in Italian). Roma: Carocci. ISBN 88-430-1680-6.
- "Results for θεσ/νικη". Google News. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- Strabo VIII Fr. 21,24 – Paul's early period By Rainer Riesner, Doug Scott, p. 338, ISBN 0-8028-4166-X
- Richard Wallace, Wynne Williams (1998). The three worlds of Paul of Tarsus. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Dionysios Politis (2008). E-Learning Methodologies and Computer Applications in Archaeology. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- Earl J. Richard (2007). First and Second Thessalonians. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- White Tower Museum - A Timeline of Thessalonikidead link
- David W. J. Gill, Conrad Gempf (1994). The Book of Acts in Its Graeco-Roman Setting. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- V. A. Fine, Jr., John (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans. University of Michigan Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3.
- Pat Southern (2001). The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Alexandros Ph Lagopoulos, Karin Boklund-Lagopoulou (1992). Meaning and geography: the social conception of the region in northern Greece. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Fred S. Kleiner (2010). A History of Roman Art, Enhanced Edition. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Matthew P. Canepa (2009). The two eyes of the Earth: art and ritual of kingship between Rome and Sasanian Iran. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Amy-Jill Levine, Marc Z. Brettler (2011). The Jewish Annotated New Testament. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- George Finlay (1856). History of the Byzantine empire from DCCXVI to MLVII.. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Robert Browning (1992). The Byzantine Empire. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Donald MacGillivray Nicol (1993). The last centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Michael Jones (1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 1300-c. 1415. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Karl Kaser (2011). The Balkans and the Near East: Introduction to a Shared History. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
- Richard Britnell, John Hatcher (2002). Progress and Problems in Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Edward Miller. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Skedros, James C. (1999). Saint Demetrios of Thessaloniki : civic patron and divine protector, 4th-7th centuries CE. Harrisburg, Pa: Trinity Press International. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-56338-281-9.
- Paul M. Barford. The early Slavs: culture and society in early medieval Eastern Europe. p. 61. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- T E Gregory, A History of Byzantium. Wiley- Blackwell, 2010. Pg 169. "It is now generally agreed that the people who lived in the Balkans after the Slavic "invasions" were probably for the most part the same as those who had lived there earlier, although the creation of new political groups and arrival of small immigrants caused people to look at themselves as distinct from their neighbors, including the Byzantines".
- Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages : 500 - 1250. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-521-81539-0. "At the emperor's request, Constantine and his brother started the translation of religious texts into Old Church Slavonic, a literary language most likely based on the Macedonian dialect allegedly used in the hinterland of their hometown, Thessalonica"
- Florin Curta & Paul Stephenson (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250. Cambridge University Press. p. 214.
- Apostolos Euangelou Vakalopoulos (1993). A History of Thessaloniki. Books.google.ca. pp. 32–34. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- The Cambridge history of Russian literature by Charles A. Moser, pg. 3. Books.google.ca. 30 April 1992. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Dixon-Kennedy, Mike (1999). Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend. (2nd printing ed.). Oxford: ABC-Clio. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-57607-130-4.
- V. A. Fine, Jr., John (2000). The early medieval Balkans : a critical survey from the sixth to the late twelfth century (1. paperback ed., 10.[Dr.] ed.). Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3.
- Jonathan Harris (2006). Byzantium and the Crusades. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Jonathan Riley-Smith (2005). The Crusades: A History. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Warwick William Wroth (1911). Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths and Lombards: And of the Empires of Thessalonica, Nicaea and Trebizond in the British Museum. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Jim Bradbury (2004). Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Mark C. Bartusis (1997). The late Byzantine army: arms and society, 1204–1453. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- George Finlay (1851). The History of Greece from Its Conquest by the Crusaders to Its Conquest by the Turks, and of the Empire of Trebizond, 1204–1461. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- V. A. Fine, Jr., John (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Timothy E. Gregory (2010). A History of Byzantium. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Warren T. Treadgold (1997). A history of the Byzantine state and society. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- cf. the account of John Anagnostes.
- Nicol, Donald M. (1992). Byzantium and Venice: A Study in Diplomatic and Cultural Relations. Cambridge University Press. p. 371. ISBN 0-521-42894-7. "The capture and sack of Thessalonica is vividly described by an eye-witness, John Anagnostes ... He reckoned that 7000 citizens, perhaps one-fifth of the population, were carried off to slavery."
- Harris, Jonathan (1995). Greek emigres in the West 1400–1520. Porphyrogenitus. p. 12. ISBN 1-871328-11-X. "Many of the inhabitants of Thessalonica fled to the Venetian colonies in the early 15th century, in the face of sporadic attacks which culminated in the city's capture by Murad II in the 1430s."
- Milner, Henry (2009). The Turkish Empire: The Sultans, the Territory, and the People. BiblioBazaar. p. 87. ISBN 1-113-22399-5. "Theodore Gaza, one of these exiles, escaped from Saloniki, his native city, upon its capture by Amurath."
- John R. Lampe, Marvin R. Jackson (1982). Balkan economic history, 1550–1950: from imperial borderlands to developing nations. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Gábor Ágoston, Bruce Alan Masters (2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Tina P. Christodouleas (2008). Judeo-Spanish and the Jewish Community of 21st Century Thessaloniki: Ethnic Language Shift in the Maintenance of Ethno Cultural Identity. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain) (1843). The Penny cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Kemal H. Karpat (2002). Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History: Selected Articles and Essays. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Sir James Porter, Sir George Gerard de Hochepied Larpent (1854). Turkey: Its History and Progress: From the Journals and Correspondence of Sir James Porter Continued to the Present Time, with a Memoir of Sir James Porter, Volume 2. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Salaheddin Bey (1867). La Turquie à l'exposition universelle de 1867 Turkey at the Universal Exposition of 1867. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- ABC-CLIO (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Gerolympos, Alexandra Karadimou. The Redesign of Thessaloniki after the Fire of 1917. University Studio Press, Thessaloniki, 1995
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City A. Maliaris Paideia. p. 91. ISBN 978-960-457-231-1.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City A. Maliaris Paideia. p. 95. ISBN 978-960-457-231-1.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City A. Maliaris Paideia. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-960-457-231-1.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City A. Maliaris Paideia. p. 85. ISBN 978-960-457-231-1.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City A. Maliaris Paideia. p. 86. ISBN 978-960-457-231-1.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City A. Maliaris Paideia. p. 87. ISBN 978-960-457-231-1.
- William R. Schilling (2002). Nontraditional Warfare. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Dakin, Douglas (1966). The Greek struggle in Macedonia, 1897–1913. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Timothy Winston Childs (1990). Italo-Turkish Diplomacy and the War Over Libya, 1911–1912. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- S. B. Chester (1921). Life of Venizelos. p. 159. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
- Richard C. Hall (2000). The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913: prelude to the First World War. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
- Eugenia Russell (2010). St Demetrius of Thessalonica - Cult and Devotion in the Middle Ages. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- A Short History of Modern Greece. Cambridge University Press. 1979. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2004). The Riverside Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- David Nicolle, Raffaele Ruggeri (2003). The Italian Army of World War I. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Spencer Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts (2005). World War I: encyclopedia, Volume 1. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- 100 + 1 Years of Greece, Volume I, Maniateas Publishings, Athens, 1995. pp. 148–149
- George Th Mavrogordatos (1983). Stillborn republic: social coalitions and party strategies in Greece, 1922–1936. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Dimitri Pentzopoulos (2002). The Balkan exchange of minorities and its impact on Greece. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Paschalis M. Kitromilides (2008). Eleftherios Venizelos: The Trials of Statesmanship. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Yerolympos, Alexandra Karadimou (1995). The Redesign of Thessaloniki after the Fire of 1917. Thessaloniki: University Studio Press.
- Yakov Benmayor. "History of Jews in Thessaloniki". Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- Elisabeth Kontogiorgi (2006). Population exchange in Greek Macedonia: the rural settlement of refugees 1922–1930. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City B. Maliaris Paideia. pp. 723–724. ISBN 978-960-457-239-7.
- Royal Institute of International Affairs (1975). Chronology and index of the Second World War, 1938–1945. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- John O. Iatrídês, Linda Wrigley, Lehrman Institute (1995). Greece at the crossroads: the Civil War and its legacy. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Martin Gilbert (1982). The Routledge atlas of the Holocaust. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Yale Strom (1992). The Expulsion of the Jews: Five Hundred Years of Exodus. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Auschwitz inmate who survived by boxing dies aged 86". www.haaretz.com. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City B. Maliaris Paideia. p. 753. ISBN 978-960-457-239-7.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City B. Maliaris Paideia. p. 738. ISBN 978-960-457-239-7.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City B. Maliaris Paideia. p. 763. ISBN 978-960-457-239-7.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City B. Maliaris Paideia. pp. 765–766. ISBN 978-960-457-239-7.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City B. Maliaris Paideia. pp. 766–768. ISBN 978-960-457-239-7.
- Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos (2009). Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ - Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης Thessaloniki ... on Fire - The Concussive 20th Century of the City B. Maliaris Paideia. pp. 942–943. ISBN 978-960-457-239-7.
- "Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Past European Capitals of Culture". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- Jason Manolopoulos (2011). Greece's 'Odious' Debt: The Looting of the Hellenic Republic by the Euro, the Political Elite and the Investment Community (Anthem Finance). Anthem Press. p. 288. ISBN 0-85728-771-0.
- "Athens 2004 Olympic Games Tickets". www.olympic.org. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Το 2012 συμπληρώνονται 100 ΧΡΟΝΙΑ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΗΣ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ!" [2012 marks 100 YEARS OF FREE THESSALONIKI!]. www.thessaloniki.gr. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Thessaloniki Candidate City European Youth Capital 2014". www.thessaloniki2014.eu. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "5 Significant Earthquakes where Location Name includes Thessaloniki". United States Department of Interior, US Geological Survey. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- "Significant earthquakes of the world - 1978". United States Department of Interior, US Geological Survey. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- 100+1 Χρόνια Ελλάδα 100+1 Years of Greece. Volume II. Maniateas Publishings. 1999. pp. 210–211.
- Matheos Santamouris, Demosthenes N. Asimakopoulos (2001). Energy and climate in the urban built environment, Volume 1. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Thessaloniki, Greece". www.weatherbase.com. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Thessaloniki Mikra". Hellenic National Meteorological Service - Greek Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Thessaloniki/Mikra Greece". www.worldclimate.org. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Thomas E. Downing, Alexander A. Olsthoorn, Richard S. J. Tol (1999). Climate, change and risk. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Weather Information for Thessaloniki". United Nations. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Thessaloniki/Mikta Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
- The Metropolitan Governance of Thessaloniki! (in Greek)
- "Σύντομη Οικονομική Κατάσταση Προϋπολογισμού" [Short Economic Situation of the Budget]. Municipality of Thessaloniki. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Σύντομη Οικονομική Κατάσταση Προϋπολογισμού" [Short Economic Situation of the Budget]. Municipality of Thessaloniki. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Daley, Suzanne (15 June 2012). "Greek Mayor Aims to Show Athens How It's Done". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- ΔΗΜΟΣΙΕΥΣΗ. "Πρεμιέρα Υπουργικού με τρία νομοσχέδια". Δημοσιογραφικός Οργανισμός Λαμπράκη Α.Ε. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- "Εκλογές 2012" [Elections 2012]. Skai TV. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- Karadimou-Gerolympou, Alexandra (1996). Urban transformation in the Balkans (1820–1920): Aspects of Balkan town planning and the remaking of Thessaloniki. University Studio Press. ISBN 960-12-0553-5.
- "Σεϊχ Σου (Seich-Sou)". Seich Sou Forest National Park Web site (in Greek).
- "Profile". Monilazariston.gr. 15 November 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, "The City of Thessaloniki" (in Greek)
- Hellenic Government – Thessaloniki 2012 Program (in Greek)
- Ministry of the Environment, of Energy and of Climate Change – Complete presentation (in Greek)
- "Σε επιχειρηματικό πάρκο μεταμορφώνονται οι Λαχανόκηποι ("Laxanokipoi is transformed into business district")". VORIA.gr. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "ΝΕΑ ΠΑΡΑΛΙΑ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ Καινούργια και βραβευμένη! - Εφημερίδα Μακεδονία της Θεσσαλονίκης". Makthes.gr. Retrieved 2014-01-19.
- Στα 28 εκατ. ευρώ το τεχνικό πρόγραμμα του δήμου. Makedonia (in Greek) (Thessaloniki). 23 March 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- "Economically active population by sex and age, at NUTS levels 1, 2 and 3 (1000)". Eurostat. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- "Unemployment rates by sex and age, at NUTS levels 1, 2 and 3". Eurostat. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington (2011). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- S. Todd Lowry, Barry Lewis, John Gordon (1998). Ancient and Medieval Economic Ideas and Concepts of Social Justice. BRILL. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- F. E. Ian Hamilton (1986). Industrialization in Developing and Peripheral Regions. Routledge. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- Panos Arion Hatziprokopiou. Globalisation, Migration and Socio-Economic Change in Contemporary Greece: Processes of Social Incorporation of Balkan Immigrants in Thessaloniki. Amsterdam University Press. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- "The port CITY". Thessaloniki Port Authority. 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
- "Maritime transport - Goods (gross weight) - Annual data - All ports - by direction". Eurostat. 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
- "Statistical Data 2010". Thessaloniki Port Authority. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
- "Shipping Agents Association of Thessaloniki". www.snpth.gr. Retrieved 2 December 2011.clarification needed
- "I"Οχημα" η κρουαζιέρα για τον ελληνικό τουρισμό" [Cruising as a means for Greek tourism]. Port.Thess (July–August 2011 edition). www.thpa.gr. 2011. p. 3. Retrieved 16 August 2011.dead link
- "Pfi (Βφλ)". Pfi.gr. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "Information is in Greek from one of the city's largest dailies". Makthes.gr. 29 December 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Smartphone Made in Greece!". Skai TV. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Васил Кънчов (1970). "Избрани произведения", Том II, "Македония. Етнография и статистика" (in Bulgarian). София: Издателство "Наука и изкуство". p. g. 440. Retrieved 19 October 2007.
- Συλλογικο εργο (1973). "Ιστορια του Ελληνικου Εθνους",History of Greek Nation Том ΙΔ, (in Greek and English). ATHENS: "ΕΚΔΟΤΙΚΗ ΑΘΗΝΩΝ". p. g. 340.
- Sieur de la Croix (1679). "Personal Journals". Η Θεσσαλονίκη των Περιηγητών 1430–1930 (in Greek). Εταιρία Μακεδονικών Σπουδών. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- Molho, Rena.The Jerusalem of the Balkans: Salonica 1856–1919 The Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki. URL accessed 10 July 2006.
- "Population of Greece". General Secretariat Of National Statistical Service Of Greece. www.statistics.gr. 2001. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
- "Eurostat regional yearbook 2010". Eurostat. www.eurostat.eu. 2010. Archived from the original on 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- Abrams, Dennis (2009); Nicolas Sarkozy (Modern World Leaders), Chelsea House Publishers, p. 26, Library Binding edition, ISBN 1-60413-081-4
- Kirsch, Adam The Other Secret Jews – Review of Marc David Baer's The Dönme: Jewish Converts, Muslim Revolutionaries, and Secular Turks, The New Republic, 15 February 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2010
- Kushner, Aviya. "Is the language of Sephardic Jews, undergoing a revival?". My Jewish Learning. Ladino Today. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- "The Great Fire in Salonica". Greece History. Hellenica Website. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Misha Glenny, The Balkans, p. 512.
- "Holocaust Memorial/The Shoah Monument (Thessaloniki)". wikimapia. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- "Thessaloniki Holocaust Memorial". Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- J. Nehama, Histoire des Israélites de Salonique, t. VI-VII, Thessalonique 1978, p. 765 (via Greek Wikipedia): the population was inflated because of refugees from the First World War
- Korina Miller, Kate Armstrong, Michael Stamatios Clark, Chris Deliso (2010). Greece. Lonely Planet. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- 'History', National Theater of Northern Greece website (in Greek)
- "Cultural Capital". Music.columbia.edu. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
- "Όπερα Θεσσαλονίκης". Ntng.gr. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Greg Elms (15 June 2012). "Ultimate Party Cities – Lonely Planet". Lonelyplanet.com. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Χώρος άθλησης και ψυχαγωγίας το πάρκο της ΧΑΝΘ (in Greek). www.voria.gr. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- Θεσσαλονίκη: Η νέα κατάφυτη παραλία θα έχει αμμουδιά, σιντριβάνια, λόφο και ελαιώνα σε ξερολιθιές (in Greek). www.agelioforos.gr. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- Σεϊχ Σου (in Greek). www.seihsou.gr. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- Ζωολογικός Κήπος (in Greek).
- "Κολυμπώντας σε βραβευμένες και απόλυτα καθαρές παραλίες ..." (in Greek). www.typosthes.gr. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- In Macedonia from the 7th c. BC until late antiquitydead link
- The Gold of Macedondead link
- 5,000, 15,000, 200,000 years ago ... An exhibition about prehistoric life in Macedoniadead link
- About the Museum (in Greek)
- Award of the Council of Europe to the Museum of Byzantine Culture (in Greek)
- Introduction video of the White Tower Museumdead link
- NOESIS – About the Museum (in Greek)
- "About Ataturk Museum". Hotelrotonda.com. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- The Museum of the Macedonian Struggle – Introduction (in Greek)
- "The Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art – List of artists". Mmca.org.gr. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- The Teloglion Foundation of Art – The Collection
- "Photography Museum of Thessaloniki – Exhibitions". Thmphoto.gr. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- John S. Bowman, Sherry Marker, Peter Kerasiotis, Rebecca Tobin (25 January 2008). Frommer's Greece. Frommer's. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Clyde E. Fant, Mitchell Glenn Reddish (2003). A guide to biblical sites in Greece and Turkey. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington (2011). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Wiley-Backwell. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Laura Salah Nasrallah, Charalambos Bakirtzis, Steven J. Friesen (2010). From Roman to early Christian Thessalonikē: studies in religion and archaeology. Harvard College. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Jack Finegan (1981). The archeology of the New Testament: the Mediterranean world of the early Christian Apostles. Westview Press. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Θεσσαλονίκη: Κατασκευή αντιγράφων από το Λούβρο [Thessaloniki: Construction of replicas from the Louvre] (in Greek). Skai TV. 6 December 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- Thessaloniki International Trade Fair – History and actions (in Greek)
- "Παρουσίαση 76ης Δ.Ε.Θ." [Presentation of the 76th Thessaloniki International Trade Fair]. www.helexpo.gr. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Thessaloniki International Film Festival – Profile (in Greek)
- "List of posters". Filmfestival.gr. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Thessaloniki Documentary Festival – Awards (Greek)
- Dimitria Festival official website (in Greek)
- Article on Culturenow (in Greek)
- "The Exhibition". The Thessaloniki Book Fair. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Tasos Kritsiolis (2 November 2006). "ΦΕΣΤΙΒΑΛ ΤΡΑΓΟΥΔΙΟΥ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ". www.musiccorner.gr. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Αλεξάνδρειο Αθλητικό Μέλαθρον". www.alexandreiomelathron.gr. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Transgender persons in Thessaloniki become victims of police violence". Grreporter.info. Retrieved 2014-01-19.
- List of Athens 2004 venues (in Greek)
- "Galanis Sports Data". Galanissportsdata.com. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- "Galanis Sports Data". Galanissportsdata.com. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- "Κόκκινος Ποσειδώνας: Πρωταθλητής Ελλάδας στο πόλο ο Ολυμπιακός για 21η φορά στην ιστορία του! – Pathfinder Sports". Sports.pathfinder.gr. 3 May 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- "Άξιος πρωταθλητής ο Ηρακλής – Παναθηναϊκός, Ηρακλής – Contra.gr". Contra.gr. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- magic moving pixel s.a. (27 March 2005). "F-004 – TOURS VB vs Iraklis THESSALONIKI". Cev.lu. Retrieved 5 January 2009.dead link
- 1οι Αγώνες των χωρών της Νοτιανατολικής Ευρώπης – SEE games – Thessaloniki 2007dead link
- Presentationdead link
- "PROFILE". EPT TV-Radio. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- History of the Companydead link (in Greek)
- Frommer's Greece. Wiley Publishing Inc. 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- "Τραγούδια για τη Θεσσαλονίκη 2". homelessmontresor. 2007-06-04. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- "Τραγούδια για την Θεσσαλονίκη". Musicheaven.gr. 13 February 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- "Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings". Topuniversities.com. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- The International Journal of Scientometrics, Infometrics and Bibliometrics estimates that there are 17036 universities in the world.
- "official list". Cwts.nl. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Open University (in Greek).
- "Thessaloniki has no Apple's real representation". Karakatsanis, Dimitris. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- "OASTH – General characteristics". oasth.gr. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- "Location of Macedonia Intercity Bus Station". KTEL Makedonia. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- Attiko Metro A.E. (10 March 2011). "Δηλώσεις του Υφυπουργού κ. Γιάννη Μαγκριώτη στο Σταθμό ΕΥΚΛΕΙΔΗΣ του ΜΕΤΡΟ". Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- "Thessaloniki metro "top priority", Public Works minister says". Athens News Agency. www.ana.gr. 12 February 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2007.dead link
- "CONCLUSION OF CONTRACT FOR THE THESSALONIKI METRO". Attiko Metro S.A. www.ametro.gr. 7 April 2006. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2007.
- "CONCLUSION THESSALONIKI METRO & ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION". Attiko Metro S.A. www.ametro.gr. 12 April 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2007.
- Attiko Metro A.E. (3 February 2011). "Το 2018 η Θεσσαλονίκη θα έχει Δίκτυο Γραμμών Μετρό". Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- "Επέκταση Προαστιακού στο τμήμα Λιτόχωρο - Λάρισα [Expansion of Proastiakos towards Litohoro - Larissa]" (in Greek). Naftemporiki. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- "Αναβαθμίζεται με 286 εκατ. το αεροδρόμιο "Μακεδονία" [The "Macedonia" Airport is being upgraded with 286 million Euros]" (in Greek). Express. 30 August 2011.
- Koutsabaris, Fotis (27 September 2009). "ΝΕΟ ΑΕΡΟΔΡΟΜΙΟ Ιδανική θέση 45 χλμ. δυτικά της Θεσσαλονίκης προτείνουν ειδικοί [Specialists suggest an ideal place for the airport 45 km (28 mi) west of Thessaloniki]". Makedonia. (Greek)
- "Αναστέλλονται όλα τα διεθνή δρομολόγια του ΟΣΕ [All international routes of OSE have been suspended]" (in Greek). Ta Nea. 13 February 2011.
- Port of Thessaloniki passenger terminaldead link
- Koutsabaris, Fotis (19 June 2010). "Περιφερειακή οδός: Επικίνδυνη εάν δεν γίνουν παρεμβάσεις [Ring Road: Dangerous if measures are not taken]" (in Greek). Makedonia.
- "- Καρμανιόλα" η περιφερειακή οδός Θεσσαλονίκης που θεωρείται πλέον πεπερασμένη [The Ring Road is considered dangerous and outdated]" (in Greek). Athens News Agency. 25 April 2006.
- "Ηχορύπανση από τα αυτοκίνητα στο κέντρο της Θεσσαλονίκης [Noise pollution from cars at the center of Thessaloniki]" (in Greek). Kathimerini. 16 March 2011.
- Tasioulas, Tasos (12 November 2011). "Εργα - "ανάσα" στην περιφερειακή οδό ["Relief" works at the Ring Road]" (in Greek). Aggelioforos.
- Kanitsaki, Ntonia (6 November 2011). "Θεσσαλονίκη: Η περιφερειακή οδός... απογειώνεται![" the Ring Road]" (in Greek). Aggelioforos.
- "ΤΙ ΠΡΟΤΕΙΝΟΥΝ ΟΙ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΟΝΕΣ "Ματ" στο κυκλοφοριακό με δύο κινήσεις [What scientists are proposing to solve the "traffic problem" ]" (in Greek). Makedonia. 25 October 2009.
- "Αδελφοποιημένες Πόλεις". Municipality of Thessaloniki. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Hartford Sister Cities International". Harford Public Library. Retrieved 2 February 2008.dead link
- "Partner (Twin) towns of Bratislava". Bratislava-City.sk. Archived from the original on 2013-07-28. Retrieved 2013-08-05. (listed as 'Solun)
- Mazumdar, Jaideep (17 November 2013). "A tale of two cities: Will Kolkata learn from her sister?". Times of India (New Delhi). Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- Kryebashkiaku i Durrësit Vangjush Dako dhe kryebashkiaku i Selanikut Yiannis Boutaris nënshkruajnë një marrëveshje binjakëzimi midis dy qyteteve, Municipality of Durrës, 2012-04-05 (in Albanian)
- "Twinnings". Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "Limassol Twinned Cities". Limassol (Lemesos) Municipality. Archived from the original on 2013-04-01. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- "Sister cities: Thessaloniki, Greece". City of Melbourne. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- "Fun Facts and Statistics". City and County of San Francisco. Retrieved 2 February 2008.dead link
- Apostolos Papagiannopoulos,Monuments of Thessaloniki, Rekos Ltd, date unknown.
- Apostolos P. Vacalopoulos, A History of Thessaloniki, Institute for Balkan Studies,1972.
- John R. Melville-Jones, 'Venice and Thessalonica 1423–1430 Vol I, The Venetian Accounts, Vol. II, the Greek Accounts, Unipress, Padova, 2002 and 2006 (the latter work contains English translations of accounts of the events of this period by St Symeon of Thessaloniki and John Anagnostes).
- Thessaloniki: Tourist guide and street map, A. Kessopoulos, MalliareÌ„s-Paideia, 1988.
- Mark Mazower, Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430–1950, 2004, ISBN 0-375-41298-0.
- Thessaloniki City Guide, Axon Publications, 2002.
- Eugenia Russell, St Demetrius of Thessalonica; Cult and Devotion in the Middle Ages, Peter Lang, Oxford, 2010. ISBN 978-3-0343-0181-7
- James C. Skedros, Saint Demetrios of Thessaloniki: Civic Patron and Divine Protector, 4th-7Th Centuries (Harvard Theological Studies), Trinity Press International (1999).
- Vilma Hastaoglou-Martinidis (ed.), Restructuring the City: International Urban Design Competitions for Thessaloniki, Andreas Papadakis, 1999.
- Matthieu Ghilardi, Dynamiques spatiales et reconstitutions paléogéographiques de la plaine de Thessalonique (Grèce) à l'Holocène récent, 2007. Thèse de Doctorat de l'Université de Paris 12 Val-de-Marne, 475 p.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thessaloniki.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Thessaloniki|
- Municipality of Thessaloniki
- Thessaloniki Port Authority
- ΟΑΣΘ – Organisation of Urban Transport of Thessaloniki (Greek & English)
- You in Thessaloniki on YouTube: Official promotional video for Thessaloniki by the Greek National Tourism Organization
- Thessaloniki The Official website of the Greek National Tourism Organisation
- Thessaloniki Concert Hall Organisation
- Thessaloniki Film Festival
- Thessaloniki Info & Links
- Thessaloniki360 Virtual City Guide
- Thessaloniki Tsimiski.gr street
- Thessaloniki 2012 (celebrations for the 100 years of the incorporation of the city to Greece)
- Thessaloniki 2014 (official website of Thessaloniki European Youth Capital 2014)